Friday, May 26, 2017

Single Node CI/CD Pipeline using Github, Jenkins & Docker for Dev/Test Env

Introduction -

This is not as simple as it might sound from the headline!
I built a small lab for myself to test out the CI/CD flow. I had a Fedora VM running on Virtualbox on Xubuntu 16.04 LTS with following details, I don't like to use my base operating system for development work, it is a stable build Xubuntu which works great. All of my dev work happens on VM's, so that if I am on move, I can ship it to my Macbook Air and go from there.
Kernel - Linux localhost.localdomain 4.10.14-200.fc25.x86_64 #1 SMP Wed May 3 22:52:30 UTC 2017 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

[root@localhost ~]# docker info
Containers: 0
 Running: 0
 Paused: 0
 Stopped: 0
Images: 0
Server Version: 1.12.6
Storage Driver: devicemapper
 Pool Name: docker-docker--pool
 Pool Blocksize: 524.3 kB
 Base Device Size: 10.74 GB
 Backing Filesystem: xfs
 Data file: 
 Metadata file: 
 Data Space Used: 20.45 MB
 Data Space Total: 21.45 GB
 Data Space Available: 21.43 GB
 Metadata Space Used: 49.15 kB
 Metadata Space Total: 54.53 MB
 Metadata Space Available: 54.48 MB
 Thin Pool Minimum Free Space: 2.145 GB
 Udev Sync Supported: true
 Deferred Removal Enabled: true
 Deferred Deletion Enabled: true
 Deferred Deleted Device Count: 0
 Library Version: 1.02.136 (2016-11-05)
Logging Driver: journald
Cgroup Driver: systemd
 Volume: local
 Network: null bridge host overlay
Swarm: inactive
Runtimes: oci runc
Default Runtime: oci
Security Options: seccomp
Kernel Version: 4.10.14-200.fc25.x86_64
Operating System: Fedora 25 (Server Edition)
OSType: linux
Architecture: x86_64
Number of Docker Hooks: 2
CPUs: 2
Total Memory: 3.858 GiB
Name: localhost.localdomain
Docker Root Dir: /var/lib/docker
Debug Mode (client): false
Debug Mode (server): false
WARNING: bridge-nf-call-iptables is disabled
WARNING: bridge-nf-call-ip6tables is disabled
Insecure Registries:
Registries: (secure)
The VM has Host Only networking to communicate to Host OS & Bridge mode to communicate to Internet. For newbies, VM's Host OS is Xubuntu, Docker Container's Host is Fedora VM.
For you, all you should care about is Fedora VM.

Initial Dockerfile for Sample Apache Tomcat App -

I fetched a Base OS image from Docker Hub for CentOS 7.3.1611. Funny thing, if you notice following error, just make sure your system has nameservers properly configured (no DNS issues). root@localhost prompt is my VM OS Shell prompt.
[root@localhost ~]# docker pull centos
Using default tag: latest
Trying to pull repository ... 
Pulling repository
Error while pulling image: Get dial tcp: lookup on [::1]:53: read udp [::1]:55267->[::1]:53: read: connection refused
I faced issues with running Tomcat via Systemctl due to Systemd issues inside Docker Container. Known issues here & here. Workaround found at Redhat Blog here. I had to create a CentOS_Systemd container first, then I had to use that as a base image for Tomcat Image. I never faced this issue on RHEL7 images from Redhat Registry. Good summary of steps are present here. To run Tomcat as a Service, this is a must. Since I ran a Systemd based OS, their analogy is different than the Docker Upstream, it advocates that every process should be traced back to PID 1, so a Container should have PID 1. There is a latest article on Redhat Blog by the same author here. The best documentation I found was on CentOS Systemd Integration page here. This was a good enough detour from my original goal, but I got it working finally. The most important note is "systemctl start tomcat" doesn't work at the time of Docker Build, only "systemctl enable tomcat" works. When inside the container, /usr/sbin/init doesn't work, the key is to run "exec /usr/sbin/init", this will invoke Systemd routines and will also start the Tomcat service.

centos_systemd Docker Build -

[root@localhost ~]# docker build -t centos_systemd .
Sending build context to Docker daemon 69.65 MB
Removing intermediate container 0b86dda24fbe
Successfully built 43c0e6cb0bd0
[root@localhost ~]# 
Dockerfile here.

centos_systemd Dockerfile -

# A basic Apache Tomcat server to showcase the CI/CD flow using Jenkins/Docker
# Based on to circumvent the SystemD inside Docker known issue

FROM centos
MAINTAINER Subodh Pachghare version: 0.1 <>
ENV container docker
RUN yum install -y systemd 
RUN yum install -y java-1.8.0-openjdk-headless
RUN (cd /lib/systemd/system/; for i in *; do [ $i == systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service ] || rm -f $i; done); \
rm -f /lib/systemd/system/*;\
rm -f /etc/systemd/system/*.wants/*;\
rm -f /lib/systemd/system/*; \
rm -f /lib/systemd/system/*udev*; \
rm -f /lib/systemd/system/*initctl*; \
rm -f /lib/systemd/system/*;\
rm -f /lib/systemd/system/*
VOLUME ["/sys/fs/cgroup"]
CMD ["/usr/sbin/init"]

mytomcat Docker Build -

[root@localhost test]# docker build -t mytomcat .
Sending build context to Docker daemon 2.048 kB
Step 1 : FROM
Removing intermediate container c8effb63c2dd
Successfully built eb652553a64e
Dockerfile here. Tomcat sample app used from here.

mytomcat Dockerfile - 

# A basic Apache Tomcat server to showcase the CI/CD flow using Jenkins/Docker
# Based on to circumvent the SystemD inside Docker known issue
MAINTAINER Subodh Pachghare version: 0.1 <>

RUN yum install -y tomcat tomcat-webapps tomcat-admin-webapps wget
RUN systemctl enable tomcat
RUN cd /usr/share/tomcat/webapps && wget
CMD ["/usr/sbin/init"]

Docker Images -

[root@localhost test]# docker images
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
mytomcat            latest              eb652553a64e        10 minutes ago      460.1 MB
centos_systemd      latest              4c8d701144c0        23 minutes ago      416.4 MB    latest              8140d0c64310        2 weeks ago         192.5 MB

Docker Run Command(s) - 

docker run --privileged -ti -v /sys/fs/cgroup:/sys/fs/cgroup:ro -p 8080:8080 mytomcat
Or in some case, following worked too.

docker run -ti -v /sys/fs/cgroup:/sys/fs/cgroup:ro -p 8080:8080 mytomcat
Note - Do not use Bash as Entrypoint, it overrides the CMD ["/usr/sbin/init"] inside the Dockerfile, systemd never gets invoked. If you use it, make sure to do "exec /usr/sbin/init" inside Container.

Shell Output -

[root@localhost ~]# docker run --privileged -ti -v /sys/fs/cgroup:/sys/fs/cgroup:ro -p 8080:8080 mytomcat
Detected virtualization docker.
Detected architecture x86-64.

Welcome to CentOS Linux 7 (Core)!

Set hostname to <b04d834d8c31>.
[  OK  ] Reached target Swap.
[  OK  ] Reached target Paths.
[  OK  ] Created slice Root Slice.
[  OK  ] Listening on Delayed Shutdown Socket.
[  OK  ] Listening on Journal Socket.
[  OK  ] Created slice System Slice.
[  OK  ] Reached target Slices.
[  OK  ] Reached target Local File Systems.
         Starting Create Volatile Files and Directories...
         Starting Journal Service...
[  OK  ] Started Create Volatile Files and Directories.
[ INFO ] Update UTMP about System Boot/Shutdown is not active.
[DEPEND] Dependency failed for Update UTMP about System Runlevel Changes.
Job systemd-update-utmp-runlevel.service/start failed with result 'dependency'.
[  OK  ] Started Journal Service.
[  OK  ] Reached target System Initialization.
[  OK  ] Listening on D-Bus System Message Bus Socket.
[  OK  ] Reached target Sockets.
[  OK  ] Reached target Basic System.
[  OK  ] Started Apache Tomcat Web Application Container.
         Starting Apache Tomcat Web Application Container...
[  OK  ] Reached target Multi-User System.
[  OK  ] Reached target Timers.

Notice the Tomcat server starting. Since we have the sample app in Webapps directory, it worked directly. Since the init is in progress, this Container cannot be stopped with CTRL^C. From other shell prompt, I needed to do "docker stop".

From my Xubuntu OS, I accessed, it worked.


Docker Registry -

I needed a Docker Registry running on Docker Host (VM), so that the images built by Jenkins are pushed to it & it can be pulled for Continuous Deployment Cycle. So I created a Registry using a simple command - 

docker run -d -p 5000:5000 --restart=always --name registry registry:2

Now I can pull/push from 5000 port number from any interface on this VM (Host Only/Bridge).

Edited the /etc/sysconfig/docker and added the docker registry as unsecured one. The is the internal IP address assigned to Registry Container, which can be found out by "docker network ls" or "docker inspect" command. Reload the daemon after adding this.
Push the centos_systemd image to this repo for future reference.
docker tag 4c8d701144c0
docker push
Verify by pulling the image, so that Jenkins image mytomcat will not face any issues.

Docker Host-Client Setup -

In next step, I was going to use Jenkins in Container, we need the Docker Host to be accessible via outside, in Docker Host and Docker Client Configuration. By default, Docker doesn't exposes to outside world.

Added following to /etc/sysconfig/docker & reload the Docker -
OPTIONS=-H unix:///var/run/docker.sock -H tcp://
This told Docker daemon to listen on all interfaces of the Docker Host (VM). Then I cleared all firewall/iptables rules in the system, so that ingress connections can be accepted.
iptables -F
iptables -t nat -F
iptables -L
Verified using "ps -aef" that the socket options are accepted by Docker Daemon. From outside docker box (a complete different box), I validated the Host-Client connection.
root@ninja:~# docker -H tcp:// ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                                              NAMES
6fb8530fbda4        jenkins             "/bin/tini -- /usr/lo"   5 minutes ago       Up 5 minutes>50000/tcp,>8080/tcp   focused_bartik
5898d5176fac        registry:2          "/ /etc/"   6 hours ago         Up 8 minutes>5000/tcp                             registry
root@ninja:~# is external facing IP address of VM.

Continuous Integration (CI) -

Jenkins Master (in Container) Setup -

I used Jenkins LTS image from Docker Hub to run Jenkins Master Server inside Docker Container as it doesn't do actual docker build of new images. Jenkins slave should be a Docker Host in a Corporate Environment, so that it is easier to build Docker Images. Here I am using Docker Host (VM) server as a Docker Builder connected via SSH. Then I made the Jenkins Master as offline, so it will not perform any builds as Jenkins Master in Container doesn't have Docker binary.
[root@localhost ~]# docker pull jenkins
Using default tag: latest
Trying to pull repository ... 
sha256:983472b40004d48fb2896ca8b0d9825707e65527dd8e78a152b7f543051f8b1e: Pulling from
Digest: sha256:983472b40004d48fb2896ca8b0d9825707e65527dd8e78a152b7f543051f8b1e
Status: Downloaded newer image for

Launch Jenkins with Bind Mount Volume -

docker run -p 8081:8080 -p 50000:50000 -u root -v /root/jenkins:/var/jenkins_home jenkins
I created a directory at /root named jenkins, since it was owned by root, I gave -u parameter as root.

Successful Output -

May 25, 2017 9:06:13 PM jenkins.install.SetupWizard init


Jenkins initial setup is required. An admin user has been created and a password generated.
Please use the following password to proceed to installation:


This may also be found at: /var/jenkins_home/secrets/initialAdminPassword


--> setting agent port for jnlp
--> setting agent port for jnlp... done
May 25, 2017 9:06:30 PM hudson.model.UpdateSite updateData
INFO: Obtained the latest update center data file for UpdateSource default
May 25, 2017 9:06:31 PM hudson.model.DownloadService$Downloadable load
INFO: Obtained the updated data file for hudson.tasks.Maven.MavenInstaller
May 25, 2017 9:06:35 PM hudson.model.DownloadService$Downloadable load
INFO: Obtained the updated data file for
May 25, 2017 9:06:35 PM hudson.model.AsyncPeriodicWork$1 run
INFO: Finished Download metadata. 22,313 ms
May 25, 2017 9:06:38 PM hudson.model.UpdateSite updateData
INFO: Obtained the latest update center data file for UpdateSource default
May 25, 2017 9:06:38 PM hudson.WebAppMain$3 run
INFO: Jenkins is fully up and running
Then I accessed the Web Console using my Xubuntu OS at (8080 of Jenkins is exposed on 8081 to outside world as Tomcat was supposed to run on 8080).

Following plugins were automatically installed.

All of the plugins and static data was getting stored at /root/jenkins on Docker Host (VM). So the state of cluster is preserved, even if the Container was restarted. After creating an user, I was on landing page.

Installed the Cloudbees Build-Publish Plugin for Dockerfile Build.

Gave all inputs related to Github public project. Notice the Github Webhook configuration. Monitored the Github Hook Log to see any messages. Since I am behind Dynamic IP, my Jenkins server doesn't have Ingress access to Payload URL. So I don't have a unique URL like "" to which Github can send Push Events. Mine is "" which is within private region. If my Jenkins server was public facing, then this Webhook will go into the "Add Hook" section of Github. Right now, I am going to trigger a manual build.

Jenkins Slave Configuration -

I reduced Build Executors to 1, and made master offline.

Configured master settings. is the Gateway interface for Docker Network, on which Docker Host is running.

Created a /root/jenkins-slave directory on VM, this will act as a Workspace home for all project. $WORKSPACE for new jobs.

Notice below that Master is running inside Container and Jenkins-Slave is Docker Host.

Jenkins Credentials had both the Jenkins Global Namespace creds for Jenkins itself and for SSH User/Password for Slave Node.
Created a new project MyTomcat Pipeline and configured it.

Before running the build/push job -
[root@localhost ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY                       TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE   latest              4c8d701144c0        12 hours ago        416.4 MB
centos_systemd                   latest              4c8d701144c0        12 hours ago        416.4 MB                latest              681ef98a247f        9 days ago          704.2 MB                 latest              8140d0c64310        2 weeks ago         192.5 MB               2                   9d0c4eabab4d        2 weeks ago         33.17 MB

No content is $WORKSPACE - /root/jenkins-slave/workspace/MyTomcat Pipeline

I manually ran "Build Now" from Jenkins, If I had a Static IP & hostname, I just would had to do a Git Commit.

Populated workspace content on Jenkins Slave -
[root@localhost MyTomcat Pipeline]# pwd
/root/jenkins-slave/workspace/MyTomcat Pipeline
[root@localhost MyTomcat Pipeline]# ls
Dockerfile  LICENSE
[root@localhost MyTomcat Pipeline]# 
Full successful Build Log here.

Docker images after successful build and push to Registry.
REPOSITORY                       TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE         jenkins             3eae7b04dd10        5 minutes ago       627.3 MB         latest              3eae7b04dd10        5 minutes ago       627.3 MB
centos_systemd                   latest              4c8d701144c0        13 hours ago        416.4 MB   latest              4c8d701144c0        13 hours ago        416.4 MB                latest              681ef98a247f        9 days ago          704.2 MB                 latest              8140d0c64310        2 weeks ago         192.5 MB               2                   9d0c4eabab4d        2 weeks ago         33.17 MB
This is beautiful, the Dockerfile was downloaded from Github & a container was created for Tomcat and it was pushed to Registry for users to consume with a single click.

Continuous Deployment (CD) -

Now I tweaked the Jenkins Project furthermore to include Deployment logic so that Tomcat should be up and running.
I used another plugin named "Docker Build Step" which allows for heavy customization to deploy images with various command line parameters.
Plugin details here.
Additional configuration in Build section in addition to CI -

Two steps were involved ,first was to create the Container and other one was to start the Container.

Full Deploy Log here.
[root@localhost MyTomcat Pipeline]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                              COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                                              NAMES
ad446046f8e5   "/usr/sbin/init"         12 seconds ago      Up 9 seconds>8080/tcp                             mytomcat1
1226ab94235f        jenkins                            "/bin/tini -- /usr/lo"   About an hour ago   Up About an hour>50000/tcp,>8080/tcp   furious_shannon
5898d5176fac        registry:2                         "/ /etc/"   11 hours ago        Up About an hour>5000/tcp                             registry
[root@localhost MyTomcat Pipeline]# 
I had the Container running right away & serving the Sample Tomcat App at

This was great! This is how I was able to achieve a Build/Deploy process via single "Build Now" click in Jenkins.

Ofcourse, this is not a Enterprise Architecture, but enough to understand the intricacies.


Wednesday, May 24, 2017

AWS SQS Design Considerations

Few things came to my mind about AWS Simple Queueing Service (SQS) -

These are highly subjective based on the type of Service Architecture.

1. receive_message() and delete_message() are two different things. Imagine if a server dies in multi-server cluster environment, the message in queue was received by other server which was alive (It doesn't call the delete_message() ), when the first server comes back to life, it will receive the message again (after natural polling), but it is already processed by another server & sent further in the Service Flow. The recovered server can again process the same message and might call the Service Flow again. Should delete_message() be called always no matter who processes the message?

2. A logic is needed to handle above scenario. Who should delete the message from the queue?

3. There can be a delay between SQS Load Balancing queue message appearance, it should check and recheck again and again to arrive at the empty queue again, so that the messages are not missed.

4. In FIFO with load balancing, the message will be delivered in same order?

5. Amazon distributes data in SQS accross multiple data centres, after populating the messages, what should be the optimum wait time to successfully query the list of messages in SQS?

6. Simple method to prevent duplicate messages in SQS?

I will explore more on this topic. This page will act as a placeholder for my SQS/SNS thoughts.


Sunday, May 21, 2017

Jabra Bluetooth Headset with Ubuntu

Note to myself - Always use Bluetooth Manager (BlueMan) to configure wireless headset like Jabra on Ubuntu 16.04 (I am on Xubuntu 16.04). The native Bluetooth search and pair doesn't work with Multi-Device Support Bluetooth Headsets.

Citrix Receiver Error on Linux

I am using Xubuntu 16.04 and wanted to use Citrix Receiver on Linux, the latest version was not working at all, SSL certificate errors and lot of trouble. Latest Citrix receiver works just fine on the Mac/Win10, I don know, why it is complicated on Linux. Anyways I am too tired to debug right now, I downgraded to 13.2 version x86_64 and it worked fine.

I used the Certs from Mozilla Firefox - (short note to myself)
sudo ln -s /usr/share/ca-certificates/mozilla/* /opt/Citrix/ICAClient/keystore/cacerts/
sudo c_rehash /opt/Citrix/ICAClient/keystore/cacerts/
/opt/Citrix/ICAClient/util/configmgr &
Link useful for more debugging - here.

I will revisit the issue with 13.5 version.

Friday, May 12, 2017

Hiss sound in earphones when Intel Turbo Boost enabled on Kaby Lake!

Recently I bought a new system with Intel Kaby Lake 7th Generation 7400 Core i5 Processor.

I have a decent earphones from SoundMagic ES18. Strange thing, whenever I tune my CPUFreq program to run CPU at full clock speed for 3.5 GHz (Turbo Clock), I hear Hiss static sound in my earphone even if the CPU Cores are idling. When I revert back to on-demand, it vanishes. Not sure why this is happening.

Not a big deal though! Cheers!

Returning back to blogging after almost 4 years!

I took a sabbatical from Blogging for close to 4 years now, to understand some stuff better. I was thinking about starting again from past year, finally here I am. My tech interests have shifted significantly into Microservices and DevOps. Please tune in for upcoming interesting posts. Cheers!